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Division      Magnoliophyta Cronquist (1996)
----Subdivision      Magnoliophytina Frohne & U. Jensen ex Reveal (1996)
--------Class      Rosopsida Batsch (1788)
------------Subclass      Caryophyllidae Takht. (1967)
---------------Superorder     Caryophyllanae Takht. (1967)
-------------------Order      Caryophyllales Perleb (1826)
----------------------Family      Didiereaceae Drake (1903)
--------------------------Subfamily     Didiereoideae Appleq. & R.S.Wallace (2003)
-----------------------------Genus         Alluaudia (Drake) Drake
--------------------------------Species      ascendens Drake (1903)       aka Didierea ascendens Drake (1901)
--------------------------------Species      comosa Drake (1903)       aka Didierea comosa Drake (1901)
--------------------------------Species      dumosa Drake (1903)       aka Didierea dumosa Drake (1901)
--------------------------------Species      humbertii Choux (1934)      aka Alluaudia decaryi (1954)
--------------------------------Species      montagnacii Rauh (1961)
--------------------------------Species      procera Drake (1903)      Madagascar Ocotillo / Arbre Pieuvre (Fr), aka Didierea procera Drake (1901)
-----------------------------Genus         Alluaudiopsis Humbert & Choux
--------------------------------Species      fiherenensis Humbert et Choux (1934)
--------------------------------Species      marnieriana Rauh (1961)
-----------------------------Genus         Decarya Choux, orth. var.
--------------------------------Species      madagascariensis Choux (1934)       Zigzag Tree, aka Alluaudia geayi Choux (1929)
-----------------------------Genus        Didierea Baill.
--------------------------------Species      madagascariensis Baill. (1880)       Octopus Tree, aka Didierea mirabilis Baill. (1895)
--------------------------------Species      trollii Capuron et Rauh (1961)       Octopus Tree, aka Didierea arachnoides
--------------------------Subfamily     Calyptrothecoideae Pax & Gilg (1897)
-----------------------------Genus         Calyptrotheca Gilg
--------------------------------Species      somalensis Gilg (1897)    aka Talinum rivae Chiovenda (1915)
--------------------------------Species      taitense (Pax & Vatke) Brenan (1949)    aka Talinum taitense Pax & Vatke (1893) or Calyptrotheca stuhlmannii Gilg (1903)
--------------------------Subfamily     Portulacarioideae Appleq. & R.S.Wallace (2003)
-----------------------------Genus         Portulacaria
--------------------------------Species      afra Jacq. (1787)      Elephant's food / Dwarf jade / Spekboom, aka Crassula portulacaria L. (1762)
--------------------------------Species      armiana E.J. van Jaarsveld (1984)       Whipstick or Namaqua porkbush, aka Ceraria namaquensis (Sond.) H.Pearson & Stephens (1912)
--------------------------------Species      carrissoana (Exell & Mendonça) Bruyns & Klak (2014)       aka Ceraria carrissoana Exell & Mendonça (1939) or Ceraria kuneneana Swanepoel (2008)
--------------------------------Species      fruticulosa (H.Pearson & Stephens) Bruyns & Klak (2014)       aka Ceraria fruticulosa H.Pearson & Stephens (1912) or Ceraria schaeferi Engler & Schlechter (1915)
--------------------------------Species      longipedunculata (Merxm. & Podlech) Bruyns & Klak (2014)       aka Ceraria longipedunculata Merxm. & Podlech (1961) or Ceraria kaokoensis Swanepoel (2007)
--------------------------------Species      namaquensis Sond. (1862)       Wolftoon, aka Ceraria namaquensis (Sond.) H.Pearson & Stephens (1912) or Ceraria gariepina H.Pearson & Stephens (1912)
--------------------------------Species      pygmaea Pillans (1928)       Pigmy porkbush, aka Ceraria pygmaea (Pillans) G.D.Rowley (1996)


                       "Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Genera of Didiereaceae," https://web.archive.org/web/20041118035408/http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?364

                       "Hierarchical position of the Family Didiereaceae," http://www.crescentbloom.com/Plants/Familia/D/Didiereaceae.htm

Applequist, Wendy L. and Robert S. Wallace  "Expanded circumscription of Didieraceae and its division into three subfamilies," Adansonia, sér. 3, 2003, 25(1): 13-16.  http://sciencepress.mnhn.fr/sites/default/files/articles/pdf/a2003n1a2.pdf

Bruyns, P. and M. Oliveira-Neto, G.F. Melo de Pinna, C.Klak "Phylogenetic relationships in the Didiereaceae with special reference to subfamily Portulacarioideae," Taxon 63 (5), October 2014, pp. 1053-1064, per https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceraria: "Recent phylogenetic tests have shown conclusively that Ceraria is located within the Portulacaria genus, and consequently all species have been accordingly renamed," and https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Portulacaria&uid=1575.

Eggli, Urs (ed.)  The Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Dicotyledons; Springer-Verlag; 2002, pp. 96-98, 378-379.

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