ALL  THE  PRIMARY  PLANTS  USED  AS  BONSAI
AND  IN  THE  RELATED  ARTS  --
A  TAXONOMIC  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  HAMAMELIDIDAE


compiled by Robert J. Baran


This Page Last Updated: December 13, 2015



(General notes at page bottom)

 
Index by Family
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Pinophyta
Pteridophyta
Notes
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae I
Magnoliophyta - Asteridae
Magnoliophyta - Caryophyllidae
Magnoliophyta - Dilleniidae
Magnoliophyta - Hamamelididae
Magnoliophyta - Magnoliidae
Magnoliophyta - Ranunculidae
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae II


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Division      Magnoliophyta    :    Ovary-enclosed-seeded flowering plants whose embryos possess two (dicot) leaf-like structures called cotyledons
----- Class      Magnoliopsida
---------- Subclass      Hamamelididae    :    chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated
--------------- Order      Fagales
-------------------- Family      Betulaceae, the birch family   EctoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Alnus  #   * Ecto + EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------------ Species      cordata (Loisel.) Duby   (cordifolia)  P        Italian alder
------------------------------ Species      glutinosa L.  P        European or Black or Common alder
------------------------------ Species      incana (L.) Moench  (tenuifolia)        Grey or Speckled alder
------------------------------ Species      japonica (Thunb.) Steud.       Japanese alder
------------------------------ Species      rhombifolia Nutt.        White alder
------------------------- Genus      Betula  #
------------------------------ Species      alleghaniensis Britton       Yellow birch
------------------------------ Species      humilis Schrank       Shrubby or Dwarf birch
------------------------------ Species      lenta L.       Sweet or Black or Cherry or Mahogany or Spice birch
------------------------------ Species      maximowicziana Regel        Monarch birch
------------------------------ Species      nana L.       Dwarf birch
------------------------------ Species      nigra .       Black or River or Water birch
------------------------------ Species      papyrifera L.       Paper or American white or Canoe birch
------------------------------ Species      pendula Roth P (alba)        European white or Silver birch
------------------------------ Species      platyphylla Sukaczev  (japonica, tauschii)        Japanese white birch
------------------------------ Species      populifolia Marshall       Gray birch
------------------------------ Species      pubescens Ehrh.  P (alba)        Downy or Moor or White or European white or Hairy birch
------------------------------ Species      utilis D. Don       Himalayan birch / Bhojpatra / Bhûrja
------------------------- Genus      Carpinus  #  *  o
------------------------------ Species      betulus L.       European or Common hornbeam
------------------------------ Species      caroliniana Walter  (americana)        American hornbeam
------------------------------ Species      eximia Nakai       Hornbeam
------------------------------ Species      japonica Blume  (carpinoides, carpinus, distegocarpus)       Japanese hornbeam / Kuma-shide
------------------------------ Species      laxiflora (Siebold.&Zucc.)Blume.  (fargesii)       Asian or Farges' or Looseflower hornbeam
------------------------------ Species      orientalis Mill.       Oriental hornbeam
------------------------------ Species      tschonoskii Maxim.  (falcatibrateata, mianningensis, obovatifolia, paohsingensis, yedoensis)        Chonowski's hornbeam / Chang hua e er li
------------------------------ Species      turczaninovii Hance  (chowii, coreana, paxii, stipulata, tanakaeana)        Korean or Redleaf or Rock hornbeam / E er li
------------------------- Genus      Corylus  #
------------------------------ Species      avellana L.       Common hazel or filbert
------------------------------ Species      colurna L.       Turkish hazel or filbert
------------------------------ Species      cornuta Marsh.       Beaked hazelnut
------------------------------ Species      heterophylla Fisch. ex Trautv.       Asian hazel / Siberian filbert / Zhen
------------------------- Genus      Ostrya
------------------------------ Species      carpinifolia Scop.       Hop hornbeam
------------------------------ Species      knowltonii Coville       Knowlton's or Western or Woolly or Wolf hophornbeam
------------------------------ Species      virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch       American hophornbeam / Ironwood
-------------------- Family      Casuarinaceae, the she-oak family
------------------------- Genus      Allocasuarina (Casuarina)
------------------------------ Species      crassa L.A.S. Johnson       Cape Pillar sheoak
------------------------------ Species      inophloia (F.Muell. & F.M.Bailey) L.A.S.Johnson       Stringybark she-oak
------------------------------ Species      littoralis (Salisb.) L.A.S.Johnson       Black sheoak
------------------------------ Species      monilifera (L.A.S.Johnson) L.A.S.Johnson       Necklace sheoak
------------------------------ Species      nana (Sieber ex Spreng.) L.A.S.Johnson       Dwarf she-oak or casuarina
------------------------------ Species      torulosa (Aiton) L.A.S.Johnson       Rose she-oak / Forest oak
------------------------------ Species      verticillata (Lam.) L.A.S.Johnson       Drooping she-oak
------------------------- Genus      Casuarina
------------------------------ Species      cunninghamiana Miq.        River sheoak
------------------------------ Species      equisetifolia L.  W (litorea)        Sheoak / Beefwood / Australian or Shrimp pine / Polynesian ironwood / Horsetail tree / Agoho / Cemara udang / Beef wood / Jungli saru
------------------------------ Species      obesa Miq.       Swamp she-oak or oak
------------------------- Genus      Gymnostoma
------------------------------ Species      australianum L.A.S.Johnson       Daintree pine
-------------------- Family      Fagaceae, the beech family   EctoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Castanea  #
------------------------------ Species      crenata Siebold & Zucc.        Japanese chestnut
------------------------------ Species      pumila Mill.       Allegheny or American chinquapin / Dwarf chestnut
------------------------------ Species      sativa Mill.       Spanish or European or Sweet chestnut
------------------------- Genus      Fagus  #
------------------------------ Species      crenata Blume  (ferruginea, sieboldii)        Japanese or Siebold's beech / Buna
------------------------------ Species      grandifolia Ehrh.       American or North American beech
------------------------------ Species      japonica Maxim.       Japanese blue beech / Inubuna / Kurobuna
------------------------------ Species      sylvatica L.  (aenea, asplenifolia, cochleata, comptoniifolia, crispa, cristata, cucullata, cuprea, echinata, incisa, laciniata, pendula, purpurea, quercoides, salicifolia, sylvestris, tortuosa, variegata)       European or Common beech
------------------------- Genus      Quercus  #
------------------------------ Species      agrifolia Née       Coast live oak
------------------------------ Species      chrysolepis Liebm.       Canyon live or Golden cup oak
------------------------------ Species      coccifera L.       Kermes or Scarlet oak
------------------------------ Species      dentata Thunb.       Daimyo or Japanese emperor oak / Kashiwa / Zuòlì / Tteokgalnamu
------------------------------ Species      douglasii Hook. & Arn.        Blue oak
------------------------------ Species      dumosa Nutt.       Coastal sage scrub or Nuttall's scrub or California scrub oak
------------------------------ Species      faginea Lam. (alpestris, lusitanica)       Portuguese oak / Roure de fulla petita / Quejigo / Roble carrasqueño
------------------------------ Species      gambelii Nutt.       Gambel oak
------------------------------ Species      ilex L.       Holm or Holly oak
------------------------------ Species      kelloggii Newberry       Black or California black or Kellogg oak
------------------------------ Species      lobata Née       Valley oak
------------------------------ Species      michauxii Nutt.  (bicolor, houstoniana, prinus)        Swamp chestnut oak
------------------------------ Species      myrsinifolia Blume       Shira Kashi or Bamboo-leaf or Chinese evergreen or Japanese evergreen or Japanese live or Chinese ring-cupped oak / Xiao yè qing gang
------------------------------ Species      nigra L.       Water oak
------------------------------ Species      phellos L.       Willow oak
------------------------------ Species      michauxii Nutt.  (bicolor, houstoniana, prinus)        Swamp chestnut oak
------------------------------ Species      pubescens Willd.       Downy or Pubescent oak
------------------------------ Species      robur L.  (pedunculata)        English or Pedunculate or French oak
------------------------------ Species      serrata Murray  (glandulifera, ningqiangensis, urticifolia)       Korean oak / Konara / Bao li
------------------------------ Species      suber L.       Cork oak
------------------------------ Species      turbinella Greene       Sonoran scrub or Shrub live or Grey oak
------------------------------ Species      undulata Torr.  (x pauciloba)        Wavy leaf oak
------------------------------ Species      virginiana Mill.       Southern live oak
-------------------- Family      Juglandaceae, the walnut family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Carya (Hicorius, Juglans)    * EctoMycorrhizal
------------------------------ Species      illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch (angustifolia, diguetii, oliviformis, pecan, tetraptera)        Pecan
------------------------------ Species      ovata (Mill.) K.Koch (alba, borealis, ovalis)        Shagbark hickory
------------------------- Genus      Juglans # produces juglone which is poisonous to some plants such as apples, tomatoes, and white birch #
------------------------------ Species      nigra L.       Black or Eastern black walnut
------------------------- Genus      Pterocarya (Juglans)
------------------------------ Species      fraxinifolia (Poir.) Spach (caucasica, pterocarpa)        Caucasian wingnut or walnut
-------------------- Family      Myricaceae, the wax myrtle family   EndoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Morella (Cerophora, Myrica)
------------------------------ Species      cerifera (L.) Small       Southern wax myrtle / Southern bayberry / Candleberry / Bayberry tree / Tallow shrub / Wax myrtle
-------------------- Family      Nothofagaceae, the southern beech family   EctoMycorrhizal
------------------------- Genus      Nothofagus
------------------------------ Species      antarctica (Forster) Oerst.       Antarctic beech / Nire or Nirre
------------------------------ Species      cunninghamii (Hook.) Oerst.       Myrtle beech / Tasmanian myrtle
------------------------------ Species      glauca (Phil.) Krasser       Hualo / Roble maulino or colorado
------------------------------ Species      gunnii (Hook.) Oerst.       Tanglefoot or Deciduous beech
------------------------------ Species      moorei (F. Muell.) Krasser       Antarctic beech

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Index by Family
Anthophyta
Cycadophyta
Pinophyta
Pteridophyta
Notes
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae I
Magnoliophyta - Asteridae
Magnoliophyta - Caryophyllidae
Magnoliophyta - Dilleniidae
Magnoliophyta - Hamamelididae
Magnoliophyta - Magnoliidae
Magnoliophyta - Ranunculidae
Magnoliophyta - Rosidae II


To show patterns of "ease" with known/experienced plants, to find suggested "ease" with unknown/new plants,
to uncover previously unsuspected patterns.
Of course, location and microclimate will ultimately determine when members of the same genus can be grown near each other.


This listing includes more specimens than are delineated in the strict Japanese sense of the word "bonsai."
Enthusiasts around the world are incorporating more and often uniquely local types of plants in their magical miniature landscape compositions,
and thus these pages are compiled with this larger reference in mind.

We are using here the APG II System, with some blending of a modified Cronquist System.
We acknowledge that for some of these plants there could be disagreement regarding ranks above the family level.

(Non-italicized genus or species names) in parenthesis are synonyms of the preceding italicized official genus or species.
Small print non-italicized names after the official species name indicate the author(s) of the original genus placement;
if the genus was changed, we show (the original author(s) in parentheses) followed by the current author, per standard citation practices.
Where a synonym of one plant is also the same as another actual listed species for that genus,
the first plant was listed in some places as a variety of the synoynm rather than as its own species as presented here.
Due to space considerations, we are not including the author(s) for the synonyms.
[Non-italicized genus names] in brackets are alternative but incorrect spellings of the preceding italicized official genus.
Most of the botanical names herein follow The Plant List.


We have started to indicate after the genus name which plants as bonsai are especially favored for their flowers (*),
which are favored for their fruits (o), and which are favored for their colored leaves (#), particularly in autumn.
Please keep in mind that the colors of these symbols are arbitrary and do not necessarily reflect the actual color of the flowers and/or fruits so indicated.
Not all members of the genus may produce these favors.

X after a name indicates rare and/or endangered species.

P after a name indicates pioneer plants, the first to colonize a disturbed or damaged community, fast growers with lots of long-viable seeds, but not particularly long-lived as mature plants.

W after a name indicates weedy or invasive species in some locations, so be careful with your discarded material or parts thereof.

The twenty-three most popular species nowadays are indicated in bolded green.

The original "Four Gentlemen," "Seven Virtuous Ones," and "Eighteen Scholars" are so indicated by either 4, 7, or 18 after the species name.

The climate zone where they are growing will affect whether a few of these plants are perennials or are completely deciduous.



Anyone who knows of additional species used as bonsai or updates/corrections to this listing
is asked to please contact  rjb@magiminiland.org.  Thank-you.



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